Facts about Pneumonia you must know

Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung frequently brought on by infection with viruses, bacteria, fungus and different organic entities, despite the fact that there are likewise non-infectious reasons. Pneumonia is frequently an intricacy of a prior condition/disease and is activated when a person’s immune system is weakened, regularly by a straightforward viral respiratory tract contamination or an instance of flu, particularly in the elderly.

Pneumonia influences the lungs in diverse ways. Lobar pneumonia influences a lobe of the lungs, and bronchial pneumonia can influence patches all through both lungs. Together, pneumonia and flu spoke to an expense to the U.S. economy in 2005 of $40.2 billion, $6 billion because of aberrant mortality I costs and $34.2 billion in direct II costs.

Facts about Pneumonia

To bring issues to light on the vitality of giving antibiotics treatment and vaccines to children in the developing world, here are some snappy realities about the illness.


  • Pneumonia and flu together are positioned as the eighth heading reason for death in the United States. Pneumonia reliably represents the major share of deaths between the two. In 2006, 55,477 individuals died of pneumonia.


  • Pneumonia kills more children less than five years old than another sickness. That is 4,300 young lives lost consistently every 20 seconds.


  • There were an expected 589,000 hospital discharges in males (40.2 for every 10,000) and 643,000 releases in females (42.4 for every 10,000) attributable to pneumonia in 2006. The most elevated pneumonia release rate that year was seen in those 65 and over at 189.0 for every 10,000.


  • Pneumonia is fundamentally brought about by bacteria, viruses, fungus and different organisms. Pneumonia can additionally be caused by the breathing of foreign elements like liquid, food, dust or gasses. One kind of pneumonia brought about by fungus is pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) which principally influences AIDS patients. Certain ailments, for example, tuberculosis, can additionally incline somebody to pneumonia.


  • For each child that dies from pneumonia in the industrialized world, 2,000 more die  in developing nations.


  • In these nations, kids under 5 and under 2 years old are at danger, particularly in the poorest groups.


  • Every year, there are more than 150 million cases of pneumonia in youngsters in developing nations, and more than 11 million children need hospitalization for pneumonia.


  • Pretty nearly 50 percent of pneumonia cases are accepted to be caused by viruses and have a tendency to bring about less extreme illness than bacteria brought on pneumonia. Most pneumonia in the exceptionally young is brought on by viral infection, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The symptoms of viral pneumonia are like flu symptoms and incorporate dry cough, fever, joint pain, migraine, difficulty breathing, chest pain and weakness.


  • Streptococcus pneumoniae or pneumococcal pneumonia is the most well-known reason for bacterial pneumonia procured outside of hospitals. The bacteria can multiply in number  and cause serious harm to circulatory system (bacteremia), healthy individual lungs, brain (meningitis) and different parts of the body, particularly when the body’s immune system is weak. It is assessed that 175,000 instances of pneumococcal pneumonia happen every year, with a casualty rate of 5-7%, or even much higher among the elderly.


  • The start of bacterial pneumonia can change from progressive to sudden. In most extreme cases, the patient may encounter , jabbering teeth, shaking/chills, serious chest pains, dry cough, sweats, coughs that creates rust shaded or greenish bodily fluid, difficulty breathing and increased pulse rate, and somewhat blue lips or nails because of lack of oxygen.


  • Mycoplasmas are the mildest free-living agents of sickness in man, with qualities of both viruses and bacteria. The agents for the most part cause a widespread and mild pneumonia. The unmistakable symptom of mycoplasma pneumonia is a cough that has a tendency to come in vicious attacks, however creates just inadequate whitish mucus. Mycoplasmas are in charge of more or less 15-50 percent of all adults’ instances of pneumonia and a considerably higher rate in school going children.


  • Individuals considered at high risk for pneumonia incorporate the elderly (in excess of 65 years old), the exceptionally young, and those with underlying health issues, for example, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD), sickle cell anemia  and congestive heart disappointment. Patients with sicknesses that weaken their immune systems, for example, those having cancer treatment, AIDS, or organ transplantation, or patients with other constant ailments are especially vulnerable to pneumonia.


  • There are no particularly effective medications for most sorts of viral pneumonia, which normally treat on their own. Early treatment with antibiotics can cure bacterial pneumonia and speed up the recovery from mycoplasma pneumonia. Notwithstanding, the infection has gotten to be more impervious to these medications, making treatment of pneumococcal diseases more difficult.


  • The financial costs of pneumonia incorporate medications and hospitalization, transportation to health facilities, and the caretakers’ failure to work or deal with other relatives while they are looking after an ill child. Families regularly must take out extensive credits to pay for consideration of their genuinely sick child, which may further drag them into profound poverty.


  • Selective breastfeeding amid the initial six months of life is an essential and simple approach to help ensure children from pneumonia and numerous different illnesses.


  • The pneumococcal polysaccharide immunization (PPSV) is prescribed for anybody in excess of 65 years old and each one of those in excess of 2 years old who have long-term health issues, asthma, and weak immune system from sickness, condition, or treatment, and is a recipient of or candidate for a cochlear implant, or are a smoker.


  • The treatment for most sorts of severe pneumonia is typically antibiotics, and costs around $1 per dosage.


  • PPSV ensures against 23 types of pneumococcal bacteria and is compelling in give or take 60-80 percent of adults in excess of 65 years old with immune systems that are not compromised.


  • Shockingly, just an expected 1 of each 5 children with pneumonia gets antibiotics.


  • PPSV vaccination is generally just required once, despite the fact that second dosage may be vital following 5 years among those in excess of 65 years old who got their first dosage before they were 65 years old and among those with medical conditions that may weaken their immune system.


  • The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is prescribed for children less than 5 years old.

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Posted by Blog Manager - August 21, 2014 at 12:11 am

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Pathophysiology of Pneumonia

Definition and Etiology

Pneumonia is an inflammable lung condition that is portrayed by parenchyma of the lung and strange alveolar fluid maintenance. There are numerous components that can bring about causing pneumonia. These elements incorporate viral, bacterial, fungal infections. Alternate elements incorporate a chemical or bug bites or physical damage to the lungs. Ordinarily the reason for pneumonia is idiopathic, that is, obscure source. In this article, we should take in the pathophysiology of pneumonia.

What is the Pathophysiology of Pneumonia?

Pneumonia is a normally happening serious illness that influences around 1 out 100 individuals consistently. As specified above, numerous components are in charge of development of pneumonia. Pneumonia can be characterized into different categories like hospital acquired and community acquired infection.

The regular type of community acquired pneumonia is pneumococcal pneumonia and Mycoplasma pneumonia. Ordinarily in individuals with weak immune system or geriatric patients, pneumonia is seen after an episode of flu. The majority of the hospital acquired infections of pneumonia are the serious infections, as they body fails to offer the instrument to fight against the condition. Aspirational pneumonia, pneumonia in immunocompromised host and viral pneumonia are a percentage of the pneumonia related particular issue.

The causative executor or creature picks up passage into the body through the respiratory tract by method for aspiration or inspiration of oral secretions. Staphylococcus and gram negative bacilli are the organisms that can reach the lungs through blood circulation.

The body’s defense component, that is, pulmonary defense mechanisms if there should be an occurrence of lungs comes energetically. A mucociliary transport, cough reflex, and aspiratory macrophages attempt to secure the body against the infection. Nonetheless, in some individuals their barrier instrument is either smothered or overpowered by the attacking executor and prompts development of infections.

The attacking organisms begins to increase and discharge harming poisons that cause edema  and aggravation of the lung parenchyma. This activity prompts amassing of cellular debris and radiates inside the lungs. Before long the airless state of the lungs is changed to a compound state because of the fluid and exudate filling up.

The ciliated epithelial cells are harmed if there should be an occurrence of viral pneumonia. The infection achieve the lungs through air-borne droplets breathed in through the mouth and nose. The infection in the wake of picking up entrance into the lungs, starts an attack of the cell covering of the aviation routes and alveoli. This prompts cell passing by immediate activity of the infection or through a cell controlled demolition toward oneself called apoptosis. With the body’s reaction to the attack, there is further harm to the lungs as the liquid is spilled into the alveoli. Viral disease of the lungs harms the lungs and makes them much more defenseless to bacterial diseases. This confused the matters much all the more in viral pneumonia.

The fungal pneumonia is an uncommon condition, and is frequently seen in people with weak immune systems like AIDS, and so on. The pathophysiology of fungal pneumonia is truly like bacterial pneumonia. The most well-known fungal operators that cause pneumonia are Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, blastomyces, Pneumocystis jiroveci, and Coccidioides immitis.

Pneumonia brought about by parasites happens when they head out to the lungs by picking up entrance through skin or being swallowed. There is cell annihilation and invulnerable reaction that prompts disturbance of oxygen transportation. The basic parasite that causes pneumonia are Strongyloides stercoralis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Ascariasis.

Nursing Management

Patient will need to have breath sounds observed q 4° to figure out whether pneumonia is advancing.

O2 sats ought to be carried out consistently ( in any event q4°during acute stage) to verify that patient is getting satisfactory perfusion.

Make beyond any doubt to give all prescribed antibiotics on time so therapeutic ranges are kept up.

Any ­ signs and symptoms of infection must be checked and reported to the doctor.

Signs and Symptoms

Below are some common signs and symptoms of pneumonia:

  1. Fever
  2. Cough ( with mucus-like, yellowish or greenish fluid, pus-like mucus or sputum chills with shaking)
  3. Weakness
  4. Easy fatigue
  5. Chest pain (sharp or cutting expanded by deep breathing or increased by coughing)
  6. Migraine
  7. sickness and retching
  8. Nausea
  9. vomitting
  10. loss of hunger
  11. general discomfort or distress
  12. uneasiness
  13. sick feeling (malaise)
  14. muscular stiffness (rare)
  15. joint stiffness (uncommon)
  16. rales

Additional symptoms that may be connected with this infection are:

  1. shortness of breath
  2. nasal flaring
  3. clammy skin
  4. coughing up blood
  5. apnea
  6. tachypnea
  7. anxiety
  8. nervousness
  9. strain
  10. stomach pain

Medical Diagnostic Tests

Diagnostic tests that may be conducted for pneumonia are:

  1. Chest X-ray
  2. Sputum gram stain
  3. CBC
  4. Arterial blood gases
  5. Sputum culture
  6. Pulmonary ventilation/ perfusion scan
  7. Thoracic CT
  8. Pleural fluid culture
  9. Lung needle biopsy

Self-Care Requisites

Patient will need to proceed prescribed antibiotics after release.

Teaching may be important to advise patient of remedial runs and need to take all of medicines, regardless of the fact that they are feeling better.

Patient will need to get a Pneumonovax (if does not all prepared have to help avoid future episodes of pneumonia).

Patient will need to be taught Signs and symptoms of infection and when to visit the doctor.

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Posted by Blog Manager - August 21, 2014 at 1:42 am

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Klebsiella Pneumoniae – Facts, Illness, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

Klebsiella Pneumoniae

Bacteria that can demolish our health are called pathogenic bacteria. Klebsiella pneumoniae, a gram-negative bacterium, is portrayed as one of the opportunistic human pathogens. Klebsiella pneumonia can cause different type of healthcare infections, bloodstream infections, surgical infections and meningitis.

Klebsiella is a gram-negative, bar molded and non-motile bacterium of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Group of bacteria apt in with this taxonomic family helps the common flora of animals and humans. Be that as it may, when they are present outside the gut (i.e. alimentary canal between the stomach and anus), these bacteria may cause certain deadly infections in people. The expression “Klebsiella” was authored to pay tribute to the German pathologist, Edwin Klebs who had done noteworthy research in the field of irresistible infectious diseases. Here, we should have a dialog about Klebsiella pneumoniae, an imperative strain of the Klebsiella genus.

General Characteristics of Klebsiella Pneumoniae

Amongst all the types of Klebsiella, Klebsiella pneumoniae is a generally mulled over strain. As per discoveries, it is encapsulated, meaning a polysaccharide layer is available outside the cell-divider of this bacterium. It can integrate ATP (adenosine triphosphate) by aerobic respiration, yet can likewise switch on to anaerobic maturation for determining vitality. Subsequently, it is a facultative anaerobic, and has a trademark peculiarity of getting to be both anaerobic and aerobic relying on the circumstances.

The extent that isolation of Klebsiella pneumoniae is concerned, it is discovered characteristically in the water, soil and vegetables (lettuce, sprout, leafy vegetables and so forth.). A valuable part with this bacterial strain is the capability to settle air nitrogen in a more usable structure for plants. Subsequently, it is a diazotrophic bacteria. In people, it could be segregated from the pharynx, skin and gastrointestinal tract. Recognized as a typical hospital acquired pathogen, this bacterium is in charge of bringing about a different community acquired infections.

Diseases Caused by Klebsiella Pneumoniae

Species fitting in with the Klebsiella are omnipresent and discovered everywhere. What’s more when they get to be pathogenic, these bacteria are especially found in the intestinal, respiratory, and urogenital tract. Illnesses brought on by Klebsiella incorporate pneumonia (an inflammable disease of the lungs), ankylosing spondylitis (degenerative inflammatory arthritis), septicemia (entire body inflammation), urinary tract infections (UTI), and soft body infections in people.

Klebsiella pneumoniae, the name itself recommends that this strain of Klebsiella variety causes pneumonia in people, and the infection is termed Klebsiella pneumonia. Other than lungs, infections in the intra stomach parts and urinary tract are additionally reported. Truth be told, it is the second most destructive pathogen, beside E. coli, which causes UTI. It regularly influences persons with weak immune systems, for example, diabetes patients hospital patients and individuals with chronic lung infections. Additionally, individuals who consume excessive alcohol are more prone to Klebsiella pneumoniae infections than others.

Klebsiella Pneumonia

To be more exact, Klebsiella pneumonia is either community acquired or hospital acquired pneumonia. While it is troublesome for Klebsiella pneumoniae strain to infect lungs of healthy individuals, it delivers a profoundly deadly pneumonia in patients who have been hospitalized, normally following two days of hospitalization. In actuality, this hospital acquired pneumonia has a tendency to be very severe and intense. It is depicted to be a severe, serious, rapid onset illness, connected with cell death, production of bloody sputum (hemoptysis), and destruction of the lungs.

Symptoms of Klebsiella Pneumonia

  1. A striking indication of Klebsiella pneumonia is cough with sputum secretion.
  2. The patient may likewise encounter chills.
  3. Chest pain
  4. high fever
  5. shortness of breath
  6. influenza
  7. nausea
  8. dizziness
  9. impaired memory and judgement
  10. persistant headache

In extreme cases, it may cause:

  1. lung destruction
  2. formation of lung abscesses (pockets of pus)
  3. Liver abscesses ( nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, weight loss, night sweats, fever, right upper quadrant pain)
  4. Discharge might additionally be available in tissues encompassing the lungs (a condition known as empyema), which can prompt structuring of scar tissues.

As per the statistics, the death rate of Klebsiella pneumonia is more than regular pneumonia. This is a direct result of the underlying infections and diseases present in the suffering patients.

Diagnosis of Klebsiella Pneumonia

Diagnosis of Klebsiella pneumonia is carried out on the basis of the symptoms present in the patient, physical examination with further tests like blood tests, chest X-ray and sputum cultures. In the event that infection is confirmed in the test outcomes, a particular course of antibiotic help is prescribed. For treatment of this bacterial pneumonia, antibiotics, for example, aminoglycoside and bactericidal (bacteriua-killing) medications like cephalosporin are typically prescribed medicines. In many cases, repetitive event of the illness is seen, and patients take a more extended period to recover completely.

Treatment of Klebsiella Pneumonia

The genuine treatment for Klebsiella pneumonia relies on the patients’ health conditions, restorative history and seriousness of the infection. In conjunction to antibiotics solution, phage therapy may be proposed for this kind of bacterial pneumonia.

Nonetheless, a concerning issue with organization of bacteriophages (a sort of infection) and antibiotics is the likeliness of bacteria getting to be impervious to both. Not at all like other mild bacterial diseases, this Klebsiella pneumonia is extremely hard to treat.

Henceforth, it is constantly suggested to take safety measures to keep from such infections. With headway in healing center administration and cleansing techniques, the occurrence of Klebsiella pneumoniae infections is incredibly decreased in the last few decades.


Hospital personal must follow specific infection control mechanisms to prevent Klebsiella from spreading among patients. These precautions may need the hospital personal to strictly adhere to hand hygiene, wearing gloves and gowns when they are checking Klebsiella pneumonia patients.

  1. Other preventive measures may include:
  2. Cleaning hands before touching your mouth, eyes or nose
  3. Cleaning hands before eating or preparing food
  4. Washing hands after using washrooms, blowing nose, sneezing or coughing
  5. Washing hands after touching any hospital items such as beds, rails, doorknobs, remote controls etc

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Posted by Blog Manager - August 21, 2014 at 1:33 am

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Feline Pneumonia – Overview, symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis & Treatment

Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs and is characterized as per reason: bacterial, viral, parasitic, fungal or inhalation.

Feline Pneumonia

Pneumonia can take after one of the cat viral respiratory illnesses, when the cat’s natural protections are debilitated by the infection. This permits secondary bacterial invaders to gain strength. Creatures well on the way to develop pneumonia are little old cats, kittens, cats who are malnourished or immunosuppressed, and cats with long-standing respiratory illnesses, for example, chronic bronchitis.

On the off chance that your cat contracts pneumonia, medicines to treat the underlying cause and care are generally prescribed. Keeping your cat ebb and flow on vaccinations and as a rule good health is the best counteractive action for this disease.

Cats are particularly helpless against aspiration pneumonia when given mineral oils to treat hairballs. It is much more secure to put either petroleum jelly or butter in the cat food.

The lungs are loaded with a huge number of little bronchi, which end in small sacs known as alveoli which hold tiny veins. Oxygen is added to the blood and carbon dioxide evacuated through the alveoli. Pneumonia causes these alveoli to fill with fluids and pus that influences the lung’s capacity to trade gasses.

Pneumonia is a typical symptom of cat viral respiratory diseases when the cat’s common resistances region debilitated.

Symptoms of Feline Pneumonia

  1. Coughing
  2. Trouble breathing
  3. Rapid Breathing
  4. Fever
  5. Blue tinge to mucus membranes of the mouth
  6. Nasal discharge
  7. Rattling sound from the chest
  8. Loss of appetite
  9. Poor appearance
  10. Weight loss
  11. Lethargy

Causes of Feline Pneumonia

Normal reasons connected with aspiration pneumonia incorporate irregularities connected with the neuromuscular disorders and pharynx, which influence both the nerves and muscles.

A broadening of the lower part of the cat’s throat (because of disgorging of gastric corrosive), or an inaccurately set feeding tube can likewise prompt aspirational pneumonia.

Diagnosis of Feline Pneumonia

Your veterinarian will perform a complete physical examination of your cat and acquire a medicinal history from you. He will listen to the chest with a stethoscope which will uncover expanded and barbarous lung sounds. He may need to perform the accompanying tests to figure out whether your cat has pneumonia:

Chest X-ray – This will affirm that your cat has pneumonia.

Tracheal wash – This is performed to get cells from the trachea which might be cultured to examine and analyze the specific organism included.

Lung aspiration- A needle is pushed through the chest into the lungs and lung cells are suctioned into the syringe. These cells are then contemplated under a microscope for the vicinity of infectious organisms.

Treatment of Feline Pneumonia

Your cat may need to stay at clinic for treatment in the event that he is extremely sick. Treatment will rely on the reason for the pneumonia and may include:

  1. Antibiotics to treat bacterial infections. The proper antibiotic will be chosen focused around bacterial cultures.
  2. Fluids to avoid dehydration
  3. Supportive treatment, for example, oxygen therapy or a nebulizer if the cat is having trouble breathing.

In the event that your cat is not eating, then he will need to be supported with food like tuna, which is strong smelling.

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Posted by Blog Manager - August 21, 2014 at 1:29 am

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Walking Pneumonia – Facts, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

Walking Pneumonia

Walking pneumonia is a casual term for pneumonia that is not serious enough to bed rest or hospitalization. You may feel like you have a cold. The indications are mostly so mellow that you do not feel you have to stay home from work or school, so you are out walking around.

Pneumonia comes in numerous diverse structures. There is the kind that compels you to bed or the hospital, and afterward there is walking pneumonia — the kind that misleads you into supposing you can carry on with your routine activities. However mild the indications are, however, experts encourage thinking twice before going out.

Symptoms of Walking Pneumonia

The main symptoms of walking pneumonia might be like a cold or flu virus, and normally start with decreased infections like, fever, headache, and a sore throat.

Children then develop a dry cough, which could be more terrible during the evening. Dissimilar to the cough from a cold, which you would hope to begin showing signs of improvement following 5 to 7 days, children with walking pneumonia will regularly cough as more time passes, even as the fever and other symptoms are diminishing. Their cough will probably even get to be productive, the cough may linger on for 3 or 4 weeks and may get to be streaked with blood.

Different signs and symptoms may include:

  1. crackles and wheezes in the chest
  2. a skin rash, including erythema multiforme
  3. diarrhea
  4. muscle pains
  5. chills
  6. chest pain
  7. trouble breathing
  8. Bigger lymph organs

Diagnosis of Walking Pneumonia

Your specialist will perform a physical test. You might likewise require a chest X-ray for results. A chest X-ray can recognize pneumonia and other respiratory sickness, for example, acute bronchitis.

Contingent upon your symptoms, you may require different tests. A few tests used to diagnose pneumonia include:

  1. throat swab
  2. sputum culture
  3. blood tests for particular antibodies
  4. complete blood number (CBC)
  5. blood cultures

Walking Pneumonia Treatments

The primary medicines for walking pneumonia are strong, including rest and liquids, and antibiotics, including:

  1. azithromycin (Zithromax)
  2. erythromycin
  3. tetracyline (just for children over age 8 however)
  4. clarithromycin (Biaxin)

Different antibiotics, for example, Amoxil and cephalosporins, do not work against walking pneumonia, however they can treat other regular reason for bacterial pneumonia, which can make it troublesome for pediatricians to pick antibiotics for these children.

Remember that children with walking pneumonia can in any case be infectious after they have been treated with antibiotics, and all the time other family members get the infection as well. Antibiotics do help most when they are begun right on time in the process of the medication.

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Posted by Blog Manager - August 21, 2014 at 1:01 am

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Viral Pneumonia – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

Viral Pneumonia

Pneumonia is a lung disease. Viral pneumonia is a lung disease brought on by an virus (germ). Numerous diverse viruses can result in viral pneumonia, including seasonal influenza (flu) and RSV (respiratory syncytial infection, an infection that is normal in children, RSV is a typical reason for viral pneumonia.

  1. Viral pneumonia is generally less genuine than bacterial pneumonia. Yet viral pneumonia could be life threatening in specific individuals:
  2. individuals who have weak immune system from HIV, diabetes, cancer and lung infection
  3. extremely old and exceptionally young people
  4. pregnant ladies

In viral pneumonia, a virus attacks the lungs making them swell and block the stream of oxygen. Most instances of viral pneumonia clear up within three weeks. Nonetheless, viral pneumonia can run from mild to extreme. Extreme cases can cause death.

What Causes Viral Pneumonia?

There are various infections that can prompt viral pneumonia including:

  1. chickenpox
  2. adenoviruses
  3. respiratory syncytial infection
  4. Flu (influenza) A and B infections are the most widely recognized causes in adults.

Viruses are generally spread from individual to individual inside a group. Coughing, sneezing or touching a surface that has been infected by an alternate contaminated individual is the most widely recognized approach to contract an infection that causes viral pneumonia.

Symptoms of Viral Pneumonia

The most well-known symptoms of pneumonia are:

  1. Cough (with a few pneumonias you may cough up greenish or yellow mucus, or even bloody mucus)
  2. Shaking chills
  3. Shortness of breath, which might just happen when you climb stairs
  4. Fever, which may be mild or high
  5. Some additional symptoms may include:
  6. Cerebral pain
  7. Sharp chest pain that get worse when you breathe or cough
  8. Loss of hunger, low vitality, and weakness
  9. Confusion, especially in adults
  10. Sweating and sticky skin

Diagnosis of Viral Pnuemonia

Physical exam: Your specialist will listen to your lungs with a stethoscope. In the event that you have pneumonia, your lungs may make crackling, gurgling, and thundering sounds when you breathe in. You additionally may be wheezing, and it may be difficult to hear breathing in some areas of your chest.

  1. Chest X-Ray (if your specialist suspects pneumonia)
  2. Bronchoscopy (rare), which permits the doctor to see your airways
  3. Sputum Culture
  4. CBC blood test to check white platelets

How is Viral pneumonia Treated?

Most instances of viral pneumonia are gentle and show signs of improvement without treatment. Anyway, a few cases are more genuine and need treatment in clinic. Antibiotic medicine is not used to treat viral pneumonia. That is because antibiotics can only fight bacteria and not viruses. To get rid of the infection, your doctor will need to endorse an antiviral medication particularly keyed to thrashing the virus that has infected your body. Ordinarily recommended antivirals include:

  1. rimantadine
  2. amantadine
  3. ribavirin
  4. zanamivir
  5. acyclovir
  6. oseltamivir
  7. foscarnet
  8. ganciclovir
  9. cidofovir

While most individuals could be dealt with at home, hospital stay may be required for extreme cases of viral pneumonia. The adults, those with continual health concerns, and the individuals who cannot deal with themselves might additionally need to stay in the hospital.


Recovery time can change as per the health of the individual before they were diagnosed with viral pneumonia. Individuals that are center matured to more seasoned may take a few weeks before they come back to normal. A healthy adult will normally be again to routine activities within a week of getting over pneumonia.

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Posted by Blog Manager - August 21, 2014 at 12:52 am

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Radiation Pneumonitis – Facts, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Radiation pneumonitis is the intense sign of radiation-induced lung disease (RILD) and is moderately basic after radiotherapy for intrathoracic malignancies or chest infection.

One of the reactions of radiation treatment (additionally called radiotherapy) includes the lungs. At the point when high-energy rays are used to destruct cancer cells and prevent them from developing and isolating, it is certain that normal cells are likewise affected.

Particularly after radiation treatment for tumors inside the chest or the breast, the lungs may become sore. The lung irritation from radiotherapy is termed radiation pneumonitis.

Radiotherapy is generally given on an outpatient premise in a healing facility or center 5 days a week for a few weeks. Radiation pneumonitis has a tendency to appear 2 weeks to 6 months after the end of radiotherapy.

It is more basic if chemotherapy is given in the meantime as radiation help, and is more prone to happen on the off chance that you have other lung infections, for example, COPD. With treatment, most individuals recoup without any enduring impacts.

Causes of Radiation Pneumonitis

Radiation pneumonitis can occur by radiation to the chest. It is more inclined to happen when:

  1. high measurements of radiation are utilized
  2. a vast region of the lung is treated with radiation
  3. certain chemotherapy medications, for example, bleomycin (Blenoxane), cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan, Procytox) or carmustine (Bicnu, BCNU), are given alongside radiation

Symptoms of Radiation Pneumonitis

It is paramount to be mindful of radiation pneumonitis, on the grounds that symptoms could be very much alike to those brought about by lung cancer alone, or might be confused for a infection, for example, pneumonia.

Symptoms of radiation pneumonitis some of the time begin amid treatment, however they are more prone to happen around 1–3 months after treatment. Indications can include:

  1. fever
  2. congestion
  3. The cough may be dry (coughing up bodily fluid or mucus).
  4. The amount of bodily fluid with the cough may build as treatment proceeds.
  5. chest clogging
  6. shortness of breath

Symptoms may go away or proceed for a few weeks or months, turning into a long term chronic issue.

Treatment of Radiation Pneumonitis

Shortness of breath or cough should be reported to the radiation oncologist or the radiation therapy group. To adapt to indications, you can:

Pace yourself and plan exercises with rest periods, in the event that you feel short of breath.

Drink more liquids and utilize a humidifier or cool-air spray to keep the air moist.

Extra pillows should be used to raise your head  and body while resting or sleeping.

Refrain from going outside on damp,hot or on extremely frosty days. Being outside in exceptionally hot or frosty climate may disturb the lungs.

Wear light, loose fitting tops and abstain from anything tight around the neck, for example, ties or shirt collars.

Specialists may prescribe medications to lessen congestion (decongestants), extend the bronchial tubes (bronchodilators), decrease cough (cough suppressants) or decrease irritation (corticosteroids). Oxygen treatment might likewise be required.

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Posted by Blog Manager - August 21, 2014 at 12:47 am

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Pseudomonas Aeruginosa – Symptoms, Treatments & Prevention

Pseudomonas infection is brought about via strains of bacterial organisms found generally in our environment; the most well-known sort bringing on infections in people is called Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Pseudomonas pneumonia is disease brought about by a bacterium from the genus Pseudomonas. The bacterium is found largely in the earth, for example, in soil, water, and plants. They normally do not result in disease in healthy individuals. On the off chance that an infection does happen in a healthy individual, it is mostly mild.

Serious Pseudomonas pneumonia normally happens in individuals in the hospitals and/or with weak immune system. Infections of the blood, pneumonia, and diseases after surgery can prompt serious sickness and death in these individuals.

Infections can happen in any part of the body. Symptoms rely on which part of the body is infected. Antibiotics are utilized to treat the infections. Patients who are very ill from P Pseudomonas pneumonia can die from infections.

Symptoms of Pseudomonas Infections

Infection in the skin has a tendency to be less serious than diseases that happen in the blood or lungs. Particular symptoms rely on upon where the infection occurs:


A bacterial infection of the blood is called bacteremia. A blood disease is a standout amongst the extreme infections brought about by this organism (Lin & Chen, 2006). Symptoms may include:

  1. fever
  2. exhaustion
  3. chills
  4. muscle and joint aches


Infection of the lungs is called pneumonia. Symptoms include:

  1. chills
  2. cough
  3. fever
  4. difficulty breathing


A skin infection caused by these bacteria is frequently a folliculitis. Indications may include:

  1. itchy rash
  2. cerebral pain
  3. bleeding ulcers


Pseudomonas may cause an external ear canal infection and bring about “swimmer’s ear.” Symptoms may include:

  1. ear pain
  2. swelling
  3. itching inside the ear
  4. difficulty hearing
  5. discharge from the ear


Symptoms of an eye infection may include:

  1. pus
  2. Irritation
  3. pain
  4. swelling
  5. impaired vision
  6. redness

Treatment of Pseudomonas Infection


Since Pseudomonas aeruginosa is impervious to antibiotics, infections are generally treated with two antibiotics. Pseudomonas infections may be treated with combos of ceftazidime (Ceftaz, Fortraz, Tazicef), imipenem (Primaxin), ciprofloxacin (Cipro), tobramycin (Nebcin), gentamicin (Garamycin), ticarcillin-clavulanate (Timentin), or flautist acillin-tazobactam (Zosyn). Most antibiotics are directed intravenously or orally for two to six weeks.


Surgical treatment of pseudomonas infections is often important to remove infected tissue. Surgery may be needed for eye infections, ear infections, brain abscesses, bone and joint diseases, heart diseases, and wound diseases. Burns and infected wounds may cause lasting harm requiring arm or leg removal.


Most pseudomonas diseases might be effectively treated with antibiotics and surgery. In immunocompromised persons, in any case, pseudomonas aeruginosa infections have a high death rate, especially after bacteremia or diseases of the lower lung. Death rates range from 15 to 20% of patients with extreme ear contaminations to 89% of patients with diseases of the left half of the heart.


Most hospitals have programs for the avoidance of nosocomial diseases. Patients with cystic fibrosis may be given intermittent measurements of antibiotics to prevent pseudomonas pneumonia.

Minor skin diseases might be prevented by keeping away from hot tubs with cloudy water. Avoiding open swimming pools at the end of the day; bathing after sharing a public pool; cleaning hot tub filters every few weeks; removing wet bathing suits at the earliest opportunity; and using appropriate amount of chlorine in water.

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Posted by Blog Manager - August 21, 2014 at 12:45 am

Categories: Pneumonia   Tags:

Pneumonia in Children – Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

Pneumonia – Overview

Pneumonia is a general term that indicates to an infection of the lungs, which could be caused by microorganisms, including viruses, fungi, bacteria and parasites.

Children and babies may get pneumonia from respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), for instance, and infants may get it from group B streptococcus (GBS) gained during childbirth, amid delivery. An older infant or kid may create pneumonia as the consequence of other bacterial or viral diseases.

Categories of Pneumonia

Specialists divide pneumonia into two categories: bacterial and viral.

Bacterial Pneumonia

Children with bacterial pneumonia typically have sudden symptoms – high fever, coughing and quick breathing. They lose their appetite and seem to be sick.

They may have some difficulty breathing (search for flaring nostrils or chest pain as they inhale), a quicker heartbeat, and somewhat blue lips or nails. They may appear feeble, weak, get diarrhea or vomit. Less basic symptoms incorporate stiff neck and stomach ache.

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the normal cause; however, other microorganisms, (for example, Staphylococcus aureus or Mycoplasma pneumoniae) can result in pneumonia, as well.

Viral Pneumonia

Viral pneumonia commonly begins like a cold, however indications gradually and relentlessly get worse. Children may have a fever of 101.5 degrees Fahrenheit or more, with coughing, wheezing, and fast breathing. Diarrhea, weakness, or vomiting can additionally be a sympton.

Viral pneumonia is typically less serious than bacterial and cannot advance into it – however it can make children more vulnerable to the bacterial pneumonia. Viruses behind pneumonia incorporate respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza infection, flu virus and adenovirus.

Symptoms of Pneumonia in Children

Symptoms fluctuate relying upon the age of the child and the reason for the pneumonia, however basic ones include:

  1. fever
  2. cough
  3. chills
  4. Bizarrely quick breathing (in a few cases, this is the main indication)
  5. nasal blockage
  6. breathing with snorting or wheezing sounds
  7. vomitting
  8. worked breathing that makes the rib muscles pull in (when muscles under the ribcage or between ribs draw inwards with every breath) and causes nasal flaring
  9. stomach ache
  10. chest pain
  11. loss of appetite, which may prompt lack of hydration
  12. somewhat blue or light black shade of the lips and fingernails in extreme cases

Diagnosis of Pneumonia in Children

Diagnosis is normally focused around the season and the extent of your child’s illness. Your doctor may diagnose essentially on an exhaustive history and physical examination, yet might additionally take  tests to affirm the conclusion:

  1. Blood tests
  2. Chest X-Ray
  3. Pulse oximetry
  4. Sputum culture


Treatment may incorporate antibiotics for bacterial pneumonia. Antibiotics might likewise speed recuperation from mycoplasma pneumonia and some unique cases. There is no unmistakably powerful treatment for viral pneumonia, which generally clears up on its own. Other treatment may include:

  1. Increased liquid intake
  2. Proper eating regimen
  3. Medicine for cough
  4. Cool humidifier in your child’s room
  5. acetaminophen (for fever and inconvenience)
  6. Your kid may be dealt with in the hospital on the off chance that he/she is having serious breathing issues. While in the hospital, treatment may include:
  7. intravenous (IV) fluids, if your child is not able to drink well
  8. intravenous (IV) or oral antibiotics
  9. continuous suctioning of your child’s nose and mouth
  10. oxygen therapy
  11. breathing treatments, as requested by your child’s doctor

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Posted by Blog Manager - August 21, 2014 at 12:40 am

Categories: Pneumonia   Tags: ,

Mycoplasma pneumoniae – Facts, Causes, Symptoms, Tratment & Prevention

Mycoplasma pneumonia is a contamination of the lungs by the microbes Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Mycoplasma pneumonia is an infectious respiratory disease. The infection is effectively spread through contact with respiratory liquids, and it causes general pandemics.

The most well-known indication of disease is a dry cough. Untreated or serious cases can have side effects influencing the heart and sensory system. In uncommon cases, Mycoplasma pneumonia could be lethal.

Diagnosis is troublesome in the early phases of Mycoplasma pneumonia on the grounds that there are few indications. As the illness advances, it could be located through imaging and lab tests. Anti-microbials are utilized to treat Mycoplasma pneumonia . Cases lethargic to anti-microbials may need to be treated with intravenous meds.

Causes of Mycoplasma pneumonia

Mycoplasma pneumonia typically influences individuals younger than 40.

Individuals at most astounding danger for mycoplasma pneumonia incorporate those living or working in packed ranges, for example, schools and shelter homes, albeit numerous individuals with it have no identifiable danger.


The symptoms are by and large gentle and show up over a time of 1 to 3 weeks. They may get to be more serious in some individuals.

Normal indications incorporate the following:

  1. Chills
  2. Chest pain
  3. Cough, normally dry and not bleeding
  4. Fever (may be high)
  5. Inordinate sweating
  6. Sore throat
  7. Cerebral pain
  8. Less normal indications include:
  9. Eye agony or soreness
  10. Ear pain
  11. Neck lump
  12. Muscle pain and joint stiffness
  13. Fast breathing
  14. Skin injuries or rash

Treatment for Mycoplasma pnuemoniae

A young person wears an oxygen cover while getting a breathing treatment.

Mycoplasma pnuemoniae diseases are for the most part gentle, yet some individuals may oblige mind in a doctor’s facility.

Pneumonia (lung disease) brought on by Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is routinely treated with antibiotics, albeit most individuals will recuperate from the ailment on their own without solution. The medication will typically not keep going as long if antibiotics are begun early.

Macrolides, the first decision of antibiotics for kids, include:

  1. clarithromycin
  2. erythromycin
  3. azithromycin
  4. roxithromycin

Antibiotics prescribed for grown-ups include:

  1. Corticosteroids
  2. tetracycline
  3. doxycycline
  4. quinolones

Not all individuals react to antibiotic treatment. Treatment for the individuals who are unresponsive to antibiotics incorporate corticosteroids:

  1. methylprednisone
  2. prednisolone

Immunomodulatory Therapy

Extreme instances of Mycoplasma pnuemoniae are treated with an immunomodulatory treatment in addition to antibiotics. An immunomodulatory help supports or reductions the impacts of whatever kind of prescription it is brought with. Samples of immunomodulatory prescription in addition to antibiotics include:

  1. intravenous Ig (IVIg) in addition to antibiotics
  2. corticosteroids with antibiotics


In the same way as other respiratory treatments, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) disease is spread by coughing and sniffing. A few tips to keep the spread of M. pneumoniae include:

  1. Put your utilized tissue within the waste bin.
  2. When coughing or sniffing cover your nose and mouth with a handkerchief or tissue.
  3. Wash your hands regularly with cleanser and water for no less than 20 seconds.
  4. On the off chance that you do not have a tissue, cough or sniffle into your upper sleeve or elbow, not your hands.
  5. On the off chance that cleanser and water are not accessible, utilize a liquor based hand rub.
  6. There is no immunization to avert M. pneumoniae contamination.

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Posted by Blog Manager - August 21, 2014 at 12:34 am

Categories: Pneumonia   Tags: , , ,

Is Pneumonia Contagious?

What is Pneumonia?

Pneumonia refers to aggravation of the lung tissue. This irritation of lung tissue could be because of various reasons, both non-infectious and infectious. Essential irresistible reason for pneumonia are bacteria, viruses and fungi. Pneumonia can likewise be brought about by chemical injury (a non-infectious reason).


Is Pneumonia Contagious?

Is Pneumonia Contagious?   Pneumonia Contagious Contagious Despite the fact that pneumonia is basically an infection in one or both lungs and is generally simple to treat, regardless it influences more than 1 million Americans every year. This prompts an extremely regular inquiry: Is pneumonia contagious?

There is no basic reply to this inquiry. Pneumonia could be both, non-contagious and contagious depend on the reason for pneumonia. Besides, the contagious reason for pneumonia are not contagious all through the course of illness, however just amid a certain period. A bacterial pneumonia is more averse to be contagious in the wake of taking antibiotics for few days. The pneumonias brought on by viruses and bacteria are normally contagious, where as those created by chemicals and fungus is not contagious.

Pneumonia can likewise be brought on by chemical injury to the lung tissue. This may happen because of inhaling toxic gasses or fumes. Similar chemical pneumonitis may additionally happen due to aspiration of gastric substance (counting gastric corrosive) in persons with adjusted level of consciousness (drunken person or a person in coma). These pneumonias are non-contagious unless there is additionally a superimposed viral or bacterial disease after the chemical injury.

Causes of Pneumonia

Bacterial Pneumonia

Inflammation of one or both of the lungs tissue is called pneumonia. A disease typically brought on by an infection. The most well-known reason for pneumonia in adults is a bacterium called Streptococcus pneumoniae. Different sorts of bacteria that can result in pneumonia include:

  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Haemophilus influenzae
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae (have a tendency to happen each four to seven years, all the more generally in kids and youngsters)

Viral Pneumonia

Viruses can additionally cause pneumonia, most normally the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and off and on again flu (influenza) type A and B virus.

Fungal Pneumonia

In the UK, pneumonia brought on by fungal infection of the lungs is uncommon in individuals who have sound health. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia remains the most widely recognized fungal pneumonia in individuals with low immune systems, for example, those infected with HIV.

Aspiration Pneumonia

Pneumonia can additionally be caused by inhaling foreign objects, for example, a dangerous or harmful substance such as smoke fumes, a piece of food . This is called aspiration pneumonia. Breathing of a foreign object can cause a bacterial infection and this can be contagious.

Catching Pneumonia

The germs that can result in pneumonia are typically breathed in. Individuals frequently have small amounts of germs in their throat and nose that could be passed on through:

  1. touching an article and exchanging germs onto it: another person can touch this item, and after that touch their own particular mouth or nose
  2. coughs and wheezes: these dispatch small droplets of fluid holding germs into the air, which another person can breath in

Streptococcus pneumonia bacteria, which causes most instances of pneumonia, is far less contagious than influenza or a cold. This is on account of most individuals’ immune systems can kill the bacteria before they have the chance to cause a disease.

Seldom, pneumonia can be developed from an infection some place else in your body, when the germs enter your lungs through your circulation system.

How Contagious Are  Different Types of Pneumonia?

Viruses are the most likely to spread from person to person than bacterial and fungal pneumonia. Talking about different kinds of pneumonia and are they contagious? Walking pneumonia, is it contagious? Walking pneumonia is caused by an infection which is caused by mycoplasma. Mycoplasma, is a bacteria like germ which is contagious and can spread like flu or a cold. Walking pneumonia is a mild infection and doesn’t confine a person to the bed.

You can get catching pneumonia in the most common places like schools, shelter homes, daycare facilities and can catch virus from others easily, which makes you more prone to the viral pneumonia.

Here is the means by which pneumonia influences diverse gatherings of individuals:

  • All viral pneumonias are more usual in children.
  • The most well-known kind of bacterial pneumonia, pneumococcal pneumonia, is most basic in adults.
  • Mycoplasma pneumonia is most common in young adults and children.
  • A sort of pneumonia brought on by a fungus called pneumocystis pneumonia is most regular in individuals with AIDS.


Vaccinations to Prevent Pneumonia

Some individuals are at higher risk of developing pneumonia. To help secure against pneumonia, it’s proposed that individuals at higher risk of complications, for example, the individuals who are 65 or over, ought to have the pneumococcal vaccination and the flu jab.


  1. The flu virus can result in pneumonia straightforwardly and can debilitate you enough to build your risk for bacterial pneumonia. Getting a flu shot can be a precarious step towards avoiding pneumonia.
  2. The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV) is recommended for grown-ups over 65 and for any grown-up who are inclined to bacterial pneumonia. One shot gives assurance to around 5 years.
  3. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is proposed for all kids younger than 5.


How to Prevent Pneumonia?

Methods to prevent pneumonia include:

  1. Not smoking and not misusing liquor.
  2. Washing your hands often and utilizing liquid sanitizers to kill germs.
  3. Restricting your exposure to sick people and not exposing others when you are ill.
  4. Properly covering your nose and mouth when sniffling or coughing.


Therefore, pneumonia is contagious. The germs that cause pneumonia surely are, however your shot of creating the illness on the off chance that you get these germs relies on upon your health, age, and lifestyle. You should consult with your doctor about your risk factors and take great care of yourself on a daily basis to avoid from getting germs.

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Posted by Blog Manager - August 21, 2014 at 12:22 am

Categories: Pneumonia   Tags: ,

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